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Hoe herken ik een leugenaar? Vrij van Pijn

Iedere dag worden we 10 tot 200 maal belogen. De aanwijzingen om die leugens te herkennen kunnen heel subtiel zijn. Pamela Meyer, auteur van het boek ‘Liespotting’, laat zien op welke manieren leugenaars te werk en hoe je misleiding kunt herkennen. Ze beargumenteert ook waarom het de moeite waard is om eerlijkheid na te streven.


              Pamela Meyer

Pamela Meyer – “Lieg-detector”
Pamela Meyer is van mening dat we een pandemie van bedrog tegemoet zien, maar ze bewapent mensen met hulpmiddelen die de waarheid kunnen terugbrengen.

Zijn wij natuurlijk geboren leugenaars? Luister naar een panel van wetenschappelijke deskundigen in deze aflevering van de zeer grappige BBC Radio 4-serie “The Infinite Monkey Cage.
More at www.bbc.co.uk →

 

 

 

 

 

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READING LIST:

BOOK
Ralph Keyes St. Martin’s Press, 2004
This author, who coined the term ‘post-truth era,’ argues that our modern society is awash in a type of lie that is neither truth nor fiction, but more akin to ‘casual dishonesty.’ An older book that is still relevant today and was way ahead of its time.
BOOK
John J. Mearsheimer Oxford University Press, 2013
Lying and diplomacy — a match made in heaven.
BOOK
Philip Houston et al. St. Martin’s Griffin, 2013
Terrific real-world tips on ferreting out lies, by three deception experts who worked on counterterrorism and criminal intelligence cases.
BOOK
Robert Feldman Twelve Books, 2010
A great book from a University of Massachusetts psychology professor about how and why deception is eroding our culture. This deception expert authored the famous study that found strangers lie to each other about three times in the first ten minutes of meeting each other.
BOOK
James B. Stewart Penguin, 2012
An investigative journalist delves deep into America’s most prominent lies and liars. Stewart focuses on many of the ‘greats,’ including Martha Stewart, Barry Bonds and Bernie Madoff.
BOOK
Aldert Vrij Wiley, 2008
A reliable handbook for any aspiring student of deception. This comprehensive book by the Swedish researcher reviews numerous studies and much of the foundational research on lie detection.
BOOK
Paul Ekman W. W. Norton & Company, 2009
A fantastic book by the father of emotion research. Ekman outlines common motives for lying, the science of using facial expressions (‘microexpressions’) to detect deception and the concept of leakage.
BOOK
Charles Darwin CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012
Charles Darwin believed that facial expressions were biologically determined and identical across all cultures. In this 1872 book, he explores such topics as ‘gradation from loud laughter to gentle smiling’ and ‘shame from broken moral laws and conventional rules.’
BOOK
G.-B. Duchenne de Boulogne and R. Andrew Cuthbertson (Translator) Cambridge University Press, 2006
French physician Guillaume Duchenne identified the physical difference between a false or ‘social’ smile — one made consciously, using only the mouth muscles — and a genuine, spontaneous smile made involuntarily, using the muscles of both the eyes and the mouth. In his honor, genuine smiles are now called ‘Duchenne smiles.’
BOOK
Dan Ariely Harper Perennial, 2013
A fun, research-based look at cheating and dishonesty by this well-known behavioral economist. The book touches on everything from why creative people are better liars to why wearing knockoff fashion accessories will make you more dishonest.
BOOK
St. Augustine Nabu Press, 2012
A classic. St. Augustine believed that a lie occurs when we ‘hold one thing in our heart and say another.’
BOOK
David Livingstone Smith St. Martin’s Griffin, 2007
An important history of lying and deception.
BOOK
David DeSteno Hudson Street Press, 2014
This fascinating book by this well-known psychologist touches on the most recent science in the field of deception and trust. He delves into topics such as the importance of reading body language and the biological foundations of trust. Interestingly, he argues that integrity even among the most trustworthy is an unstable trait that can waver when faced with personal gain.
BOOK
Nicholas Epley Knopf, 2014
This University of Chicago psychologist illuminates the importance of using your sixth sense to build and maintain honest relationships.
BOOK
Daniel Kahneman Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013
Kahneman, a Nobel Prize winner in economics, presents a compelling examination of intuition, decision-making and judgment.
BOOK
Chip and Dan Heath Random House Business, 2014
A very valuable book, especially the authors’ discussion about the ‘spotlight effect’: ‘What’s in the spotlight will rarely be everything we need to make a good decision, but we won’t always remember to shift the light. Sometimes, in fact, we’ll forget there’s a spotlight at all, dwelling so long in the tiny circle of light that we forget there’s a broader landscape beyond it.’
BOOK
Alex Pentland The MIT Press, 2010
Pentland’s fascinating research on ‘honest signals,’ the nonverbal forms of communication between individuals that when observed can predict outcomes of very diverse situations, such as speed-dating, salary negotiations and job interviews.
BOOK
Max Bazerman and Ann Tenbrunsel Princeton University Press, 2012
A look at how and why people end up making dishonest, deceptive choices, by two renowned business ethicists.
BOOK
Guy Kawasaki Portfolio Trade, 2011
If you want to know the biggest lies told by entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, lawyers and CEOs, Kawasaki’s your guy.
 

 

Voetnoten:

Bella DePaulo, “The many faces of lies”, in The Social Psychology of Good and Evil, Arthur G. Miller, Guilford Press, 2004
This study found that “kind-hearted, altruistic lies” make up about 25 percent of “everyday lies,” or what we often call “white lies.” The study also shows that lies about feelings and opinions were the most common types of everyday lies.
 
02:42
2014 Report to the Nations on Occupational Fraud and Abuse”, Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, 2014
The most recent figures from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners show that globally there was an estimated $3.7 trillion lost to fraud.
 
04:10
Jerald Jellison, “I’m Sorry, I Didn’t Mean To, and Other Lies We Love to Tell”, Chatham Square Press, 1977
 
04:15
Robert S. Feldman et al., “Self-presentation and verbal deception: Do self-presenters lie more?”, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2002
University of Massachusetts psychologist Robert Feldman conducted an experiment in which he brought two strangers together and videotaped them getting to know each other for ten minutes. Afterward he asked the subjects to watch the tape and indicate when they said something that was “not entirely accurate.” Most participants initially asserted that they had been entirely truthful during their conversation. In fact, though, 60 percent had distorted the truth at least once during those ten minutes — most of them without even realizing it. In one case, a participant had flat-out lied by claiming to be the lead singer in a rock band. How is it possible to lie without knowing it? “People lie almost reflexively,” Feldman says. “They don’t think about it as part of their normal social discourse.”
 
04:34
Jennifer J. Argo et al., “Social comparison theory and deception in the interpersonal exchange of consumption information”, Journal of Consumer Research, June 2006
This study found that people are more apt to lie to coworkers than to strangers. There are several theories as to why this might be the case. Some psychologists suggest that people are more protective of their public personas at work than anywhere else partly because the truth can often make us extremely vulnerable. If you reveal a weakness by telling the truth to a stranger, you’ll likely never see that person again, but if you do the same at work, there’s a risk that you’ll permanently alter your coworkers’ perceptions of you. And you’ll have to deal with the consequences forever … or at least until you switch jobs.
 
04:40
Deborah Kashy and Bella DePaulo, “Who lies?”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, May 1996
The researchers asked nearly 150 people to keep a diary of all the lies they told on a daily basis. The biggest liars were people who were “more manipulative, more concerned with self-presentation and more sociable,” according to the study.
 
04:42
Bella DePaulo et al., “Lying in everyday life”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, May 1996
Interestingly, DePaulo found that men and women “seemed to be using their lies to impress men and to shield and reassure women.”
 
05:42
Richard Byrne and Nadia Corp, “Neocortex size predicts deception rate in primates”, Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, August 22, 2004
This study defines deception as being able to “manipulate the behavior of others within the social group without the use of force,” and explains how deception is a sign of “cognitive sophistication.”
 
06:00
Robert Mitchell and Nicholas Thompson (Editors), “Deception: Perspectives on Human and Nonhuman Deceit”, State University of New York Press, 1986
 
06:13
Vasudevi Reddy, “Getting back to the rough ground: Deception and ‘social living’”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, April 29, 2007
The author identifies seven types of deception used by toddlers between six months and three years old, based on interviews with parents and studies of 50 children.
 
06:23
Paul Newton et al., “Children’s everyday deception and performance on false-belief tasks”, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, June 2000
The authors in this study argue that children learn to lie just as they learn to speak.
 
06:51
Ralph Keyes, “The Post-Truth Era: Dishonesty and Deception in Contemporary Life”, St. Martin’s Press, 2004
This author argues that our modern society is awash in a type of lie that is neither truth nor fiction, but more akin to “casual dishonesty.”
 
07:03
Mark G. Frank and Paul Ekman, “The ability to detect deceit generalizes across different types of high-stake lies”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997
This study, which involved male participants who were instructed to lie in interviews about a mock theft of money and about their opinion of capital punishment for a study measuring the lie-detection abilities of others, showed that a nonverbal approach to detecting deception could yield 70 percent accuracy in detecting truths and 90 percent in detecting lies.
 
08:13
This book presents a review of 28 studies on verbal indicators of deception. The review shows eight of the 10 studies dealing with “self-references” found that this verbal characteristic occurs less often in deception than in truth-telling. Studies cited by Vrij on “overgeneralized answers” also finds them to be more common in deception than truth-telling.
 
08:47
Sigmund Freud, “Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis”, Liveright, 1989
 
09:07
David B. Buller and R. Kelly Aune, “Nonverbal cues to deception among intimates, friends and strangers”, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, Winter 1987
The authors of this study measured the nonverbal behavior of 130 people, including strangers, friends and “intimates.”
 
09:25
Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen, “Detecting deception from the body or face”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974
The authors argue that the body “more truthfully reveals to the observer either how the person actually feels (leakage) or the fact that something is amiss (deception clues).” They show that “this difference between face and body would be limited, however, to situations in which the person is engaged in deception. When there is no deception, when communication is frank, then there should be little difference in the information provided from the face and body.”
 
09:32
Henry D. O’Hair et al., “Prepared lies, spontaneous lies, Machiavellianism, and nonverbal communication”, Human Communication Research, Summer 1981
The authors explain how “prepared” lies told by liars do a better job concealing their lies than “spontaneous” lies told by otherwise truthful people.
 
09:54
Joe Navarro, “A four-domain model for detecting deception: An alternative paradigm for interviewing”, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, June 2003
The four domains in the article are: comfort/discomfort, emphasis, synchrony and perception management.
 
10:22
Maurice E. Schweitzer et al., “Conflict frames and the use of deception: Are competitive negotiators less ethical?”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2005
The authors conclude that “participants with a win-oriented conflict frame were more likely to use deception and to deceive more egregiously than were participants with a cooperative frame.”
 
11:47
Paul Ekman, “Duping Delight”, Paul Ekman Group, December 2009
Ekman describes this trait as “the near irresistible thrill some people feel in taking a risk and getting away with it. Sometimes it includes contempt for the target who is being so ruthlessly and successfully exploited. It is hard to contain duping delight; those who feel it want to share their accomplishments with others, seeking admiration for their exploits.”
 
12:36
Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen, “Nonverbal leakage and clues to deception”, Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, February 1969
In addition to discussing the concept of leakage, Ekman introduces his theory of “micro” facial expressions, which he describes as facial expressions whose “duration is so short that they are at the threshold of recognition unless slow motion projection is utilized.” Ekman explains how the face is one of the best body language indicators. “A frozen, immobile poker face is more noticeable than are interlocked fingers or tensely held feet.”
 
13:06
American Academy of Neurology, “Often missed facial displays give clues to true emotion, deceit”, Science Daily, May 4, 2000
This study explains that people mistakenly only focus on the lower part of the face when trying to detect deceit, since the upper part of the face tends to carry more meaning.
 
13:48
Evan Marshall, “The Eyes Have It”, Citadel Press, 2003
 
13:53
Allan and Barbara Pease, “The Definitive Book of Body Language”, Bantam, 2006

 

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